BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Arterial stiffness is a precursor to premature cardiovascular disease. The augmentation index (AI) and pulse pressure (PP) are cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to define the diagnostic values of the AI and PP from the peripheral arterial and central aortic waveforms in healthy subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We recruited 522 consecutive subjects (mean age 46.3+/-9.6 years, 290 males) who came to our facility for a comprehensive medical testing. We measured the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, peripheral and central PP, and a pulse wave analysis that included the central and peripheral AI. RESULTS: The peripheral and central AIs in the female subjects were significantly higher than that in the male subjects (p<0.001). The peripheral and central PPs in the subjects with hyperlipidemia were significantly higher than subjects with normal lipid profiles (p<0.001). The peripheral and central PPs and peripheral and central AIs significantly increased with age. CONCLUSION: Pending validation in prospective outcome-based studies, a peripheral PP of 70 mmHg, central PP of 50 mmHg, peripheral AI of 100%, and central AI of 40% may be preliminary values in adult subjects.