BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute inflammatory process affecting the arterial walls that results in panvasculitis. Recent studies have shown that even after resolution of the disease, endothelial dysfunction persists and may progress to atherosclerosis. The pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the ankle-brachial index (ABI) are simple and non-invasive methods for evaluating the degree of atherosclerosis, and are known as the predictors of cardiovascular disease in adults. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is also known as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. We conducted this study to determine the change in arterial stiffness by measuring the PWV, ABI, and cIMT in children who have recovered from KD. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with KD and coronary aneurysm were recruited. They all recovered from KD and were normal for more than 8 years. Fifty-five healthy children were evaluated as the control group. Their height, weight, body mass index, and blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, and the mean) were measured. The PWV, ABI, ejection time (ET), and pre-ejection period (PEP) were measured by ultrasonography. The cIMT was measured by ultrasonography. RESULTS: The left brachial ankle PWV was significantly higher in the KD group (1020.6+/-146.5 cm/sec) than the control group (984.0+/-96.5 cm/sec). The ABI did not differ between the two groups. There was no difference in PEP/ET and cIMT. CONCLUSION: The PWV in children who recovered from KD was higher than the control group. Long-term follow up is necessary in children after recovery from KD even if there is no abnormality in echocardiography.