BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Smoking is known to increase arterial stiffness in adults. The pulse wave velocity (PWV) is known as an established index of arterial stiffness. The effects of smoking on the PWV in adolescents have not yet been established. We measured the PWV and ankle-brachial index (ABI) in adolescents to determine the effects of smoking on adolescents. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Four hundred twenty-seven adolescents between 14 to 16 years of age were enrolled from three high schools in Seoul, Korea. The study group was comprised of 48 smokers (38 males and 10 females) and 379 nonsmokers (254 males and 125 females). Measurements of the height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were performed. The blood pressures of the extremities, and the PWV, the ABI, the ejection time and the pre-ejection period were measured using an automatic device (VP-1000). Among the smoking group, we investigated the association between the duration of smoking, the age at which smoking started and the total number of cigarettes smoked with the PWV and ABI. RESULTS: The brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) in the smoking group was higher than that of the non-smoking group, but the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between the ABI of the two groups. Among the smokers, the heart-brachial PWV (hbPWV) was significantly associated with the duration of smoking and the total number of cigarettes smoked. CONCLUSION: Our study showed no significant difference in the PWV between the two groups. A longitudinal, long-term investigation is needed to more accurately determine the effects of smoking on adolescents.