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Korean Circ J. 1991 Apr;21(2):311-321. Korean. Original Article.
Kim YH , Song WH , Hong YK , Ahn TH , Shim WJ , Ro YM .

To evaluate the influencing factors on pulmonary venous flow(PVF) pattern, we studied the relationship between PVF and left ventricular ejection fracton(EF), mitral annulus motion(MAM) and transmitral flow using pulsed doppler echocardiography in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy(DCMP), acute myocardioal infarction(AMI), left ventricular hypertrophy(LVH) and atrial fibrillation(AE). Ther results were as follows : 1) In the normal controls(13 cases), two forward flow during ventricular systole(VS) and diastole(VD) and one retrograde flow during atrial systole(AS) were observed. The peak velocity of VS, VD and AS flow was 45.9cm/s, 42.8cm/s and -18.3cm/sec, respectively. The peak VS/VD ratio was 1.1. 2) In patients with DCMP(11 cases), (a) compared to the noraml subjects, the peak velocity of VS flow and VS/VD ratio were were significantly reduced(p<0.005 and p<0.001, respectively) and were positively correlated with ejection fraction(r=0.8 and r=0.7, respectively) (b) in 2 DCMP cases with severe mitral regurgitation, systolic retrograde flow was observed in the pulmonary vein instead of forward VS flow. 3) In 12 AMI cases and 7 LVH cases with normal or slightly diminished left ventricular systolic function but with abnormal diastolic function. (a) the peak velocity of VS flow and peak VS/VD ratio were significantly increased(r<0.005 and p<0.01, respectively). (b) the peak velocity of VD flow is positively correlated with transmitral E/A ratio(r=0.8) and the peak VS/VD ratio was positively correlated with transmitral pressure half time(r=0.8). (c) the peak velocity of retrograde AS flow was significantly increased(p<0.001). (d) there was no correlation between doppler parameters of PVF and left ventricular ejection fraction. 4) In patients with atrial fibrillation(10 cases), VS flow was markedly diminished or absent and only VD flow was observed. Also, retrograde AS flow was not observed. These findings suggest that the pattern of PVF is influnced by LVEF, MAM, transmitral inflow and atrial contraction. However, main contributary factors in determining the pattern of PVF in each disease are diverse according to its main pathophysiology.

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