PURPOSE: This study aimed to demonstrate the possible pathogenesis of granulopoiesis in patients of Kawasaki disease(KD) using quantitative analysis of G-CSF, GM-CSF and their CSFr. METHODS: The plasma levels of G-CSF, GM-CSF, G-CSFr and GM-CSFr were studied in 14 patients in the acute phase of KD; 13 children with normal peripheral white blood cell counts were used as the normal control group. The plasma concentration of G-CSF, GM-CSF were analyzed by ELISA. The G-CSFr and GM-CSFr on the peripheral granulocytes were analyzed by a quantitative flow cytometric assay and QuantiBRITE, and the quantitative changes of receptors which did not combine with G-CSF and GM-CSF were measured. RESULTS: The total number of leukocytes in KD was similar to normal control group, but the leukocytes increased according to the number of neutrophils. The plasma concentration of G-CSF were decreased similar to normal control group(P=0.133), but that of GM-CSF decreased more than the normal control group(P=0.227). The quantity of G-CSFr, GM-CSFr were revealed to be no less than the normal control(P=0.721, P=0.912). After incubation with excessive G-CSF, the expressed G-CSFr on the neutrophils were decreased in both groups(P=0.554). The quantities of expressions of GM- CSFr on the neutrophil after incubation with the excessive GM-CSF were always increased in both groups(P=0.255). The amount of GM-CSFr of neutrophils are in proportion to total white blood cells (r=0.788, P=0.035), but it wasn't in the case of KD(P=0.644). CONCLUSION: The leukocytosis in KD that mediated by increasing neutrophil was not correlated with the plasma concentrations of G-CSF and GM-CSF, and the amount of expression of G-CSFr and GM-CSFr on granulocyte. It is possible that the reduction of concentration of GM-CSF results by increasing the active GM-CSFr.