Influenza-associated encephalopathy is regarded as one of the major neurologic disease entities along with those of Reye syndrome, acute necrotizing encephalopathy, and myelitis which are known to be related to influenza virus, mostly type A. And it is being actively researched in Japan as it has caused a tremendous increase in the number of deaths from 1997 to 2002, but it has not been yet reported in the Korean pediatric medical community. It attacks those previously healthy children, who have not been vaccinated. Patients start with such symptoms as fever and common respiratory problems, but within 24 to 48 hours they suffer from seizures with acute mental deterioration, become worse, and suffer multiple organ failures including marked elevated transaminase levels as well as coagulopathy. It induces deaths in a couple of days after the symptoms appear or remains a serious neurologic sequelae. Confirmative diagnosis is used to demonstrate influenza viral infection. We report here a 37 month aged boy who was admitted to our hospital during the last influenza season under the diagnosis of influenza associated encephalopathy on the basis of serologic testing by hemagglutinin inhibition(HI). This is the first report confirmed by increased antibody titer of the influenza A virus in Korea.