PURPOSE: Henoch-Schonlein purpura(HSP) nephritis has been reported to vary from 25 to 50% among HSP patients and is a common cause of chronic glomerulonephritis in children. In our study, we evaluated the distribution and the association of the Insertion/Deletion(I/D) polymorphism of angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE) gene with clinical manifestations, particularly proteinuria in children with HSP nephritis, compared with that in HSP. METHODS: ACE gene polymorphism was determined in children with HSP nephritis(n=33) and HSP(n=28) who were diagnosed in Busan Paik hospital from January 1996 to June 2001. The I/D polymorphism of ACE gene was determined by PCR amplication of genomic DNA. RESULTS: The ACE I/D genotype frequency was DD : 25%, ID : 50%, II : 25% in HSP and DD : 24 %, ID : 46%, II : 30% in HSP nephritis, there was no significant difference in the genotype and allele frequencies between two groups. When statistical analysis was done according to the presence of D allele, the amount of 24-hour urinary protein excretion and the incidence of moderate to heavy proteinuria(>500 mg/m2/day) at onset and last follow-up were higher in DD/ID genotype than in those in II genotype, but these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: We suggest a lack of association between I/D polymorphism of ACE gene and clinical manifestations in children with HSP nephritis. However, further follow-up studies based on a sufficient number of patients and long term follow up periods are necessary to confirm the role of I/D polymorphism of ACE gene in children with HSP nephritis.