PURPOSE: With the development of neonatal intensive care and the increased use of systemic antibiotics, candida sepsis has become one of the most important causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and its associated risk factors. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 28 cases with candida sepsis who were admitted in the neonatal intensive care unit(NICU) of Chonnam University Hospital from July 1995 to June 2001. Twenty-nine patients without candida sepsis were enrolled for the control group to verify the risk factors. RESULTS: The overall incidence of candida sepsis was 0.61% for all NICU admissions and 3.68% for all very low birth weight infants with the gradual increase of the annual prevalance rate over time. The endotracheal intubation, percutaneous central vein catheter(PCVC), umbilical vein catheter, total parenteral nutrition, intralipid and dopamine were more applied than the control group (P<0.01 for all). The durations of mechanical ventilator care, central catheter appliance, nothing per os, and admission were also significantly longer than the control group(P<0.01 for all). Ampicillin/sulbactam, ceftazidime, amikacin, netilmicin, teicoplanin and imipenem/cilastatin were significantly more used than the control group(P<0.05). The durations of ampicillin/sulbactam, ceftazidime, netilmicin and imipenem/cilastatin administration were also proved to be significant as the risk factors(P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The average annual prevalence rate of candida sepsis in NICU for six years was 0.61% with gradual increasing tendency over time. The elimination of the above risk factors is important in decreasing neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with candida sepsis.