PURPOSE: Renal cystic diseases comprise a mixed group of heritable, developmental and acquired disorders. Recently the use of imaging modalities such as ultrasonography and radionuclide scanning has increased the detection rate of renal cystic diseases. We studied to review the clinical features and treatment of renal cystic diseases in children. METHODS: This study was performed in 95 children with renal cystic diseases in the Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center from October 1989 to June 2001. RESULTS: In 95 patients, there were 55 cases(58.0%) with multicystic dysplastic kidney(MCDK), 19 cases(20.0%) with simple renal cysts, 13 cases(13.7%) with hereditary polycystic kidney diseases(7 with autosomal recessive type, 5 with autosomal dominant type, 1 with undetermined), 6 cases(6.3%) with renal cysts in tuberous sclerosis and 1 case(1.0%) with medullary cystic disease. All MCDK patients had no renal dysfunction and hypertension during the follow-up period. Three out of 13 with polycystic kidney diseases had progressed to end-stage renal disease during the follow-up period. One case with a simple cyst underwent laparoscopic malsupialization for decompression. CONCLUSION: Renal cystic diseases have diverse clinicopathologic features and variable prognosis. We emphasize that routine follow-up should be performed to prevent and to detect early treatable complication in renal cystic diseases. Therefore, their natural history and treatment need further investigation and long term follow-up is required.