PURPOSE: Febrile seizure is the most common type of seizure affecting 3-4% of children. The recurrence rate of febrile seizure is approximately 33%. About 16% of children with a febrile seizure during the febrile illness have a recurrent seizure attack within 24 hours. This study aimed to investigate the optimum dose of diazepam to reduce the recurrence of febrile seizures in children who have had a febrile seizure attack. METHODS: The children with febrile seizure who were admitted to the Maryknoll hospital for in vestigation and treatment were retrospectively reviewed. The study group compromised 306 children. The febrile seizure was defined as seizure attack with fever(above 38degreeC) without evidence of intracranial infection or defined cause in children aged 6 months to 5 years. The children were divided into four groups according to dose of diazepam. Group I, 72 patients, received no diazepam therapy. Group II, 78 patients, received oral diazepam in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg every eight hours during the febrile illness, Group III, 87 patients, 0.2 mg/kg, and Group IV, 69 patients, 0.3 mg/kg, respectively. RESULTS: The seizure attack rate and the duration of admission were reduced in both Group III and Group IV. However, there was no difference in the side effects of the diazepam between group III and IV. CONCLUSION: Oral diazepam in a dose of 0.2 mg/kg effectively decreases both the seizure attack rate and the duration of admission.