PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of chronic recurrent headache and the factors associated with it among primary school children. METHODS: The survey was performed by a special questionnaire on one thousand and eleven children in grades 4 to 6 at primary schools from 1 to 30 June 1999 in Gwangju city. RESULTS: Prevalence of chronic recurrent headaches was 17.5%(17.1% among males, 18% among girls). Over forty two point seven percent(42.7%) of the children had headache 4-6 times a month. Age at onset of headache was more predominant at 7-10 years of age. Headache most frequently occured before school(30.7%), during school(29%), and before awaking in the morning(16.5%). The highest incidence rate of chronic recurrent headache was observed on Monday(23.5%), and the lowest on Saturday(5.3%). Risk factors of chronic recurrent headaches were stress(26.1%), fatigue, poor sleep(25.1%), weather change(18.3%) and anxiety(18.2%). Of 177 cases with chronic recurrent headaches, 62 cases(35%) had family history. Among them, 50.0% of the patients had history in their mothers, 24.2% in the fathers, 17.7% in the brothers and sisters. Of 177 cases with chronic recurrent headaches, 122 cases(69%) were treated at the pharmacy(35%), hospital(23%), and herb medicine(11%). CONCLUSION: This study finds a high overall prevalence(17.5%) of chronic recurrent headache on primary school children. And among many causative factors, stress schools is most common. In conclusion, while evaluating chronic headache in children, environmental and emotional factors associated with school should be considered as well as organic causes.