Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency in subunits of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH). The disease is characterized by the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, valine, alloisoleucine, and their corresponding alpha-ketoacid in blood and urine. MSUD is a heterogenous disorder, and classic, intermittent, intermediate and thiamine-responsive phenotypes have been identified. We experienced a case of Maple syrup urine disease (classic type) in a female neonate, who suffered from lethargy, poor feeding, apnea, alternating periods of hypertonicity and flaccidity, generalized convulsions, and a peculiar burned sugar smell from the body and urine. She died of respiratory failure 22 days after the birth. The brief review of the literature was made.