The clinical significance of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Y. pseudotuberculosis) has recently recognized in various part of the world because it can cause a wide range of clinical problems such as mesenteric lymphadenitis, septicemia, reactive arthritis, terminal ileitis, erythema nodosum and acute renal failure. we experienced a case of acute renal failure associated with Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. We applied a nested polymerase chain reaction method for rapid diagnosis of Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. DNA was extracted from standard strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica, serial blood samples, urine, and mountain water by phenol-chloroform method. Using specific primers, we amplified inv and ail gene from extracted DNA samples by PCR method. The patient' serotype was Y. pseudotuberculosis 2a and it's titer was 1:40 initially, after 2 weeks the titer increased to 1:160. Stool culture was negative. Inv gene amplification was positive in patient's urine, febrile stage blood, and mountain water. The nested polymerase chain reaction method can be used clinically for rapid diagnosis of Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. So we report here the clinical findings and PCR method of this case with brief review of the literatures.