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J Korean Pediatr Soc. 1997 Aug;40(8):1098-1109. Korean. Original Article.
Oh KH , Park JO , Kim CH , Shin SM .
Department of Pediatrics, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
Abstract

PURPOSE: Lipids and fatty acids are very important for brain and nervous system in growing children. This study was carried out to compare the composition of serum lipids and fatty acids according to the type of feeding in children. METHODS: One hundred and twenty two children aged from 5 month to 24 month who visited Soonchunhyang University Hospital from Mar. 1995 to Jan. 1996 with no gastrointestinal or nutritional problems were selected to compare the composition of serum lipids and fatty acids according to the type of feeding. They were divided into 3 groups according to type of feeding. Thirty three cases were breast milk fed group (BF), 48 cases were formula fed group and 41 cases were whole cow's milk fed group. Serum lipids were analysed by Folch method. Fatty acid methyl ester was made with BF3-methanol solution. Fatty acid contents (area%) were calculated by automatic analyser. RESULTS: 1) The mean serum cholesterol level was 144.14mg/dl and it was significantly higher in breast milk fed group (BF). 2) The mean serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) level was 88.82mg/dl and it was significantly higher in breast milk fed group (BF) (p<0.05). 3) Serum polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) level was 39.13% and it was significantly higher in BF. 5) Mean serum omega6 fatty acid level was 35.43% and there was no significant difference between three groups. 6) Mean serum omega3 fatty acid level was 3.70% and it was significantly higher in BF (p<0.05). 7) Mean serum arachidonic acid (AA) level was 5.28% and it was significantly higher in BF (p<0.005). 8) Mean serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) level was 0.51% and there was no significant difference between three groups. 9) Mean serum docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) level was 2.00% and it was significantly higher in BF (p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional benefit of breast milk was proven by significantly high serum levels of arachidonic acid and DHA in breast milk fed group. Essential fatty acids and DHA should be addded to infant formula. Excessive amount of whole cow's milk feeding to infants is not good in nutritional aspects. Education and guidance about feeding method of infants are also needed.

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