Pre-adoption screening examination was performed on 1257 infants and children. Routine physical examination and laboratary examination(urinalysis, blood examination, Tb skin test, VDRL, PKU and chest X-ray on children older than 2 years of age) were done. Further laboratory examinations were performen on the children with abnormal findings by the first screening. The results were as following. 1. Sex: Girls were much predominant than boys and male to female ratio was 1:2.4 2. Race: Most of them were Korean and only eleven were mixed blood (six were Korean-white, five were Korean-Negro) 3. Age: Most of them were unde 1 year of age(82.7%) 4. Congenital anomalies: 155 of them (12.3%) had major or minor congenital anomalies and 52 of them had congenital heart diseases. This incidence of congenital heart kisease children had cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Other congenital anomalies are those of genital organ, hypospadia, achondroplasia, inperforated anus, malformed ear, anophthalmia, absence of left hand and syndactyly. 5. Acquired diseases: Skin diseases were the most common. Diaper rash, eczema, scabies, rash and oral thrush. There were 5 cases of tuberculosis, and 4 cases of congenital syphilis. By routine laboratory examination there were 18 cases of positive TB skin tests, 8 cases of positive VDRL reaction. No case showed positive PKU on urine. Many of the infants and children for adoption were abandoned and they have many kinds of congenital anomalies or acquired diseases.. Inorder to promote the adoption inside the country, national and social support for the treatment of these anomalies before adoption should be considered.