At Il Sin Women's Hospital from January 1st to June 30th 1978 there were 463 preterm deliveries(Less than 38 weeks Gestation). 161 of these were between 28-36 weeks gestatin. To study the effect of Dexamethasone in preventing respiratory distress syndrome(R.D.S.) 39 mothers received Dexamethasone before delivery and 85 comparable babies were placed in the control group. 1. R.D.S. was seen in 4(10%) of the treatment group and 12(14%)of the control group. In the control group there is a slightly higher incidence but as the bumbers are small it is difficult to compare with western countreis 2. When comparing the 2 groups the incidence of R.D.S. is greatest in less than 32 weeks gestation. 3. Apgar Scoring is similar in both groups. 4. When Dexamethasone was given for greater than 48 hours the incidence of R.D.S. was less 5. Mortality rate is 10% in treatment group and 24% in control group but majority of deaths are due to severe birth hypoxia or very low birth weight (less than 1000 Gms) 6. The overall incidence of R.D.S. in Il Sin Women's hospital was 29 during the 6 months. This is 0.9% of all livebirths and 6.2% of preterm births being low compared with western countries.