CD10, a marker of immature B lymphocytes, is expressed in the developing epithelium of mammary glands, hair follicles, and renal tubules of human fetuses. To assess mesenchymal and stromal expression of CD10, we performed immunohistochemical assays in whole body sections from eight fetuses of gestational ages 15-20 weeks. In addition to expression in urinary tract and intestinal epithelium, CD10 was strongly expressed at both gestational ages in fibrous tissues surrounding the airways from the larynx to lung alveoli, in the periosteum and ossification center, and in the glans of external genitalia. CD10 was not expressed, however, in other cavernous tissues. These findings suggest that mesenchymal, in addition to epithelial cells at specific sites, are likely to express CD10. The glomeruli, alveoli, and glans are all end products of budding or outgrowth processes in the epithelium or skin. However, in contrast to the CD34 marker of stromal stem cells, CD10 was not expressed in vascular progenitor cells and in differentiated vascular endothelium. The alternating pattern of CD10 and CD34 expression suggests that these factors play different roles in cellular differentiation and proliferation of the kidneys, airway and external genitalia.