Complications following a well conducted epidural steroid injection are rare. A 50-year-old man developed a headache and neck stiffness 2 days after a lumbar epidural steroid injection. Under the impression of aseptic meningitis, fluid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy was started immediately after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling. The CSF was turbid, and revealed a white blood cell count, protein, glucose and pressure of 550/microl (98% lymphocyte), 107.9 mg/dl, 48 mg/dl (serum 113 mg/dl) and 17 cmH2O, respectively. The CSF stain and culture, and antibody test and polymerase chain reaction for pathogens were negative. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain revealed no abnormality, and a chest roentgenogram and the results of the neurological examination were normal. Under the impression of aseptic meningitis, the condition was managed conservatively, without antibiotics. Seven days later, the clinical symptoms had improved, and the patient discharged.