OBJECTIVE: To evaluate maternal anemia and vitamin D deficiency and their associations with the neonatal hemoglobin (Hb) levels and the vitamin D status. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled a total of 120 newborns delivered at Kyungpook National University Children's Hospital between June 2015 and June 2016. Maternal anemia was defined as an Hb level<11 g/dL and vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration<20 ng/mL. RESULTS: The mean neonatal and maternal serum 25-OHD concentrations were 20.1±12.5 ng/mL, and 16.9±7.3 ng/mL, respectively. Sixty-eight (56.7%) of the infants and 85 (70.8%) of the mothers were vitamin D deficient. The mean maternal hemoglobin levels were 11.7±1.6 g/dL, and 38 (31.7%) of the mothers had anemia. Thirty-four (89.5%) of mothers with anemia were vitamin D deficient. After adjusting for the confounding factors, maternal vitamin D deficiency increased the risk of maternal anemia by 4.061 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.238–13.320; P=0.021), and neonatal vitamin D deficiency by 8.283 times (95% CI, 2.861-23.980; P<0.001) compared with maternal vitamin D non-deficiency group. One-year older maternal age decreased the risk of neonatal vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio, 0.913; 95% CI, 0.841–0.991; P=0.029). CONCLUSION: Maternal vitamin D deficiency increased the risk of maternal anemia and neonatal vitamin D deficiency regardless of maternal ferritin concentrations under non-inflammatory condition. A younger maternal age may be a risk factor for neonatal vitamin D deficiency associated with maternal anemia, and maternal vitamin D deficiency.