OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors related to urinary tract infection (UTI) occurrence after an urodynamic study (UDS) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 387 patients with SCI who underwent UDS with prophylactic antibiotic therapy between January 2012 and December 2012. Among them, 140 patients met the inclusion criteria and were divided into two groups, UTI and non-UTI. We statistically analyzed the following factors between the two groups: age, sex, level of injury, SCI duration, spinal cord independence measure, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, diabetes mellitus, the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale (AIS), lower extremity spasticity, a history of UTI within the past 4 weeks prior to the UDS, symptoms and signs of neurogenic bladder, urination methods, symptoms during the UDS and UDS results. RESULTS: Among the 140 study participants, the UTI group comprised 12 patients and the non-UTI group comprised 128 patients. On univariate analysis, a history of UTI within the past 4 weeks prior to the UDS was significant and previous autonomic dysreflexia before the UDS showed a greater tendency to influence the UTI group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using these two variables showed that the former variable was significantly associated with UTI and the latter variable was not significantly associated with UTI. CONCLUSION: In patients with SCI, a history of UTI within the past 4 weeks prior to the UDS was a risk factor for UTI after the UDS accompanied by prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Therefore, more careful pre-treatment should be considered when these patients undergo a UDS.