OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of asymptomatic back muscle weakness and spinal deformity on low back pain (LBP). METHODS: Sixty healthy subjects without LBP participated in this study. Radiography and an isokinetic/isometric dynamometer were used to respectively measure spinal scoliosis/lordosis and the strength of the trunk flexors/extensors. After 2 years, 48 subjects visited the hospital again and LBP episodes, its severity and the Korean version of the Oswestry Disability Index were assessed. Differences between the group with LBP and the group without LBP were evaluated and the association with LBP incidence and severity was determined. RESULTS: Sex, age, and trunk strength were significantly different in both group. Sex and age were significantly positive associated with LBP incidence. The isometric trunk flexor and extensor strength, maximum isokinetic trunk flexor and extensor strength were significantly and negatively associated with the LBP severity. The maximum isokinetic trunk extensor and maximum isometric trunk extensor strength was significantly negative associated with the LBP incidence. CONCLUSION: LBP incidence is associated with isometric and isokinetic trunk extensor weakness, whereas LBP severity is associated with age, sex, isokinetic trunk extensor and flexor weakness, isometric trunk extensor and flexor weakness.