PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of p53 overexpression and to analyse the relationship between p53 overexpression and complete response rate, survival in locoregionl squamous cell esophageal cancers treated with preoperative chemoradiation multimodality approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a microwave oven heating method, we have detected p53 overexpression by immunohistochemically with a monoclonal antibody(DO-7) in formalin- fixed paraffin-embedded samples of 42 patients with locoregional squamous cell esophageal cancer, who treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiatian followed by surgery. RESULTS: In 27 of 42 tumors(64.2%), nuclear immunoreactivity for the p53 protein was detected. Complete response rate, evaluated in surgical specimen 3-4 weeks after chemoradiation seemed to be high in p53 positive group compared to p53 negative group, however, there was no statistically significant difference in acquiring better complete response rate, overall survival and progression free survival between p53 positive and p53 negative group(p=0.0546, p=0.0599, p= 0.6832). Complete response group(n=17) survived longer than non-complete response group(n=25)(p=0.0010). CONCLUSION: The results indicate that p53 is not a statistically significant prognostic factor in obtaining better complete response rate, overall survival and progression free survival of the patients with esophageal carcinoma treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Additional studies are warranted for further evaluation.