PURPOSE: Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) has been associated with the promotion of renal allograft interstitial fibrosis and thereby chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to contribute to cytoprotection of the graft after kidney transplantation. We investigated the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TGF-beta1 (C-509T and T869C) and the VEGF gene (C-2578A and C405G) on graft survival and the development of CAN. METHODS: Genotyping was carried out using a real-time polymerase chain reaction which was performed on the LightCycler480 in 221 Korean renal transplant recipients and 148 healthy controls. According to the presence of CAN or chronic calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity, the recipients were separated into the CAN (n=21) and the No CAN (n=200) groups. RESULTS: The genotype frequencies of the SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The distributions of genotypes and alleles did not differ between recipients and controls. No significant differences were observed in the genotype distributions and allele frequencies between the CAN and the No CAN groups. The frequencies of haplotypes were not significantly different between the two groups, either. There were no statistically significant effects of TGF-beta1 and VEGF gene polymorphisms on graft survival. CONCLUSION: This study did not show any statistically significant effects of four selected SNPs of the TGF-beta1 and the VEGF genes on the development of CAN and graft survival in Korean renal transplant recipients.