PURPOSE: Visceral obesity is a more reliable indicator of cardiovascular risk factor than BMI. Our study was designed to compare the prevalence of visceral obesity in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients to hemodialysis (HD) patients with abdominal fat CT in a single center. METHODS: In this cross sectional study, the result of abdominal fat CT of dialysis patients was investigated from January, 2007 to March, 2007 in Uijeongbu St. Mary s Hospital. To evaluate the risk factors related to visceral obesity, we analyzed patients medical records such as duration of dialysis, lipid profiles, anthropometric data and the presence of DM. RESULTS: We enrolled 65 HD patients and 67 PD patients. PD group had higher mean body weight, mean body mass index (BMI), and triglyceride level, compared to HD group. The PD group had higher visceral fat area, measured by abdominal fat CT than HD group. The prevalence of visceral obesity was higher in PD group than HD group. Visceral fat area showed positive co-relation with BMI in HD group, but did not in PD group. The age related prevalence of visceral obesity was significantly increased in the patients with older age group (>65). CONCLUSION: Our cross sectional study points to the fact that visceral obesity is more common in PD patients than HD patients. It is necessary to control weight and nutritional status, especially in PD patients for preventing metabolic complications.