Internal jugular vein catheter is frequently used for emergency hemodialysis. Various complications have been reported. Infection is one of the problem after long term use. There have been reports of osteomyelitis of clavicle secondary to subclavian catheterization but not osteomyelitis associated with internal jugular vein catheterization. There are two possible pathways of infection. One is hematogenous spread from another focus in the body or sepsis. The other is transmission of focal infection. Manipulation of the needle may perforate the vein and produce hematoma. The infected hematoma may have resulted in abscess formation around the rib and subsequent osteomyelitis. Herein we report a case of osteomyelitis of the rib complicating internal jugular vein catheterization with a review of the literature.