Parvovirus B19 infection is known to cause chronic anemia in immunocompromised hosts, including organ transplant recipients. We report a case of pure red cell aplasia caused by parvovirus B19 in renal transplants. The patient was 16-year-old male who was diagnosed as chronic renal failure 7 years ago and had been on hemodialysis twice a week. He got renal transplantation in June 1999. But anemia was not improved in first postoperative period. On admission hemoglobin was 43.0 g/L, hematocrit was 12.7%. The bone marrow biopsy revealed severe erythroid hypoplasia with giant pronormoblasts. The pronormoblasia with giant prominent intranuclear inclusions, characteristic of parvovirus B19 infection. The parvovirus B19 PCR and anti-parvovirus B19 IgM were positive. The patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and then reticulocyte count was increased 5 days later. Hemoglobin level restored to 104 g/L teo months later.