Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody mediated rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis(anti- GBM antibody mediated RPGN) is defined by the clinical picture of renal failure developing over days or weeks and the histological appearance of crescents and linear immune deposits mediated by the circulating autoantibodies. We report a case of anti-GBM antibody mediated RPGN with review of literature. A 59-year-old female patient was admitted to the Chungang Gil Hospital because of fever and acute deterioration of renal function. On admission, hemoglobin was 7.39g/dL, hematocrit was 20.9%, and BUN/Cr were 39.7 and 5.23mg/dL respectively. Urinalysis showed albumin (1+) with many RBCs. Renal biopsy revealed the presence of segmental or circumferential cellular crescents associated with smooth linear staining of glomerular basement membrane with antibody to IgG. High titer of circulating antibody to glomerular basement membrane antigen was demonstrated by the ELISA. High doses of corticosteroid with plasmapheresis were administered, but her renal function was progressively deteriorated.