OBJECTIVE: Functional and neural tissue recovery has been reported in many animal studies conducted with stem cells. However, the combined effect of cytokines and stem cells has not yet been adequately researched. Here, we analyzed the additive effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) infusion in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. METHODS: Four days after intrathecal infusion tubes implantation in Sprague-Dawley rats, SCI was induced with an infinite horizon impactor. In the Sham group (n=5), phosphate-buffered saline was injected 3, 7, and 14 days after SCI. GCSF, ADSCs, and ADSCs with GCSF were injected at the same time in the GCSF (n=8), ADSC (n=8), and ADSC+GCSF groups (n=7), respectively. RESULTS: The ADSC and ADSC+GCSF groups, but not the GCSF group, showed significantly higher Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores than the Sham group during 8 weeks (p<0.01), but no significant difference between the ADSC and ADSC+GCSF groups. In the ladder rung test, all four groups were significantly different from each other, with the ADSC+GCSF group showing the best improvement (p<0.01). On immunofluorescent staining (GAP43, MAP2), western blotting (GAP43), and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (GAP43, nerve growth factor), the ADSC and ADSC+GCSF groups showed higher levels than the Sham and GCSF groups. CONCLUSION: Our analyses suggest that the combination of GCSF and ADSCs infusions in acute SCI in the rat does not have a significant additive effect. Hence, when combination agents for SCI stem cell therapy are considered, molecules other than GCSF, or modifications to the methodology, should be investigated.