Treating diseases in the field of neurosurgery has progressed concomitantly with technical advances. Here, as a surgical armamentarium for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms, the history and present status of the keyhole approach and the use of neuroendoscopy are reviewed, including our clinical data. The major significance of keyhole approach is to expose an essential space toward a target, and to minimize brain exposure and retraction. Among several kinds of keyhole approaches, representative keyhole approaches for anterior circulation aneurysms include superciliary and lateral supraorbital, frontolateral, mini-pterional and mini-interhemispheric approaches. Because only a fixed and limited approach angle toward a target is permitted via the keyhole, however, specialized surgical devices and preoperative planning are very important. Neuroendoscopy has helped to widen the indications of keyhole approaches because it can supply illumination and visualization of structures beyond the straight line of microscopic view. In addition, endoscopic indocyanine green fluorescence angiography is useful to detect and correct any compromise of the perforators and parent arteries, and incomplete clipping. The authors think that keyhole approach and neuroendoscopy are just an intermediate step and robotic neurosurgery would be realized in the near future.