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J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2015 Oct;58(4):321-327. English. Original Article.
Song SY , Ahn SY , Rhee JJ , Lee JW , Hur JW , Lee HK .
Department of Neurosurgery, Cheongju St. Mary's Hospitial, Cheongju, Korea.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the use of contrast enhancement (especially its extent) predicts malignant brain edema after intra-arterial thrombectomy (IAT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We reviewed the records of patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent IAT for occlusion of the internal carotid artery or the middle cerebral artery between January 2012 and March 2015. To estimate the extent of contrast enhancement (CE), we used the contrast enhancement area ratio (CEAR)-i.e., the ratio of the CE to the area of the hemisphere, as noted on immediate non-enhanced brain computed tomography (NECT) post-IAT. Patients were categorized into two groups based on the CEAR values being either greater than or less than 0.2. RESULTS: A total of 39 patients were included. Contrast enhancement was found in 26 patients (66.7%). In this subgroup, the CEAR was greater than 0.2 in 7 patients (18%) and less than 0.2 in the other 19 patients (48.7%). On univariate analysis, both CEAR > or =0.2 and the presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage were significantly associated with progression to malignant brain edema (p<0.001 and p=0.004), but on multivariate analysis, only CEAR > or =0.2 showed a statistically significant association (p=0.019). In the group with CEAR > or =0.2, the time to malignant brain edema was shorter (p=0.039) than in the group with CEAR <0.2. Clinical functional outcomes, based on the modified Rankin scale, were also significantly worse in patients with CEAR > or =0.2 (p=0.003) CONCLUSION: The extent of contrast enhancement as noted on NECT scans obtained immediately after IAT could be predictive of malignant brain edema and a poor clinical outcome.

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