OBJECTIVE: Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) has the ability to measure quantitative value and produce maps of mean transit time (MTT), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV). We assessed cerebral hemodynamics by using these parameters and acetazolamide (ACZ) challenge for pre- and post-procedural evaluation in patients with unilateral cerebrovascular stenotic disease. METHODS: Thirty patients underwent pre-procedural PCT with ACZ challenge, and 24 patients (80%) was conducted follow up PCT after angioplasty with same protocol. The mean MTT, CBF, and CBV were measured and compared in both middle cerebral arterial (MCA) territories before and after ACZ challenge. Hemispheric ratio and percent change after ACZ challenge were calculated before and after angioplasty. RESULTS: The mean stenosis rate was 76.6%. Significant increases in MTT (32.6%, p=0.000) and significant decreases in CBF (-14.2%, p=0.000) were found in stenotic side MCA territories. After ACZ challenge, there were significant changes in MTT (37.4%, p=0.000), CBF (-13.1%, p=0.000), and CBV (-10.5%, p=0.001) in pre-procedural perfusion study. However, no significant increases were found in MTT, or decreases in CBF and CBV in post-procedural study. There were no significant changes after ACZ challenge also. In addition, the degrees of these changes (before and after ACZ challenge) were highly correlated with the stenotic degrees in pre-procedural perfusion study. CONCLUSION: PCT with ACZ challenge appears to be a useful tool to assess the cerebral perfusion status especially in patients with unilateral symptomatic stenotic disease.