OBJECTIVE: Infection and bone resorption are major complications of cranioplasty and have been well recognized. However, there are few clinical series describing the epidural fluid collection (EFC) as complication of cranioplasty. This study was planned to identify the predictive factors and fate of EFC after cranioplasty. METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively the demographic, clinical, and radiographic data in 59 patients who underwent a first cranioplsty following decompressive craniectomy during a period of 6 years, from January 2004 to December 2009. We compared demographic, clinical, and radiographic factors between EFC group and no EFC group. The predictive factors associated with the development of EFC were assessed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 22 of 59 patients (37.3%) suffered from EFC following cranioplasty. EFC had disappeared (n=6, 31.8%) or regressed (n=6, 31.8%) over time on follow up brain computed tomographic (CT) scans. However, 5 patients (22.7%) required reoperation due to symptomatic and persistent EFC. Predictive factors for EFC were male [odds ratio (OR), 5.48; 95% CI, 1.26-23.79], air bubbles in the epidural space (OR, 12.52; 95% CI, 2.26-69.28), and dural calcification on postoperative brain CT scan (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 1.12-15.84). CONCLUSION: The most of EFCs could be treated by conservative therapy. Air bubble in the epidural space and dural calcification are proposed to be the predictive factors in the formation of EFC after cranioplasty.