OBJECTIVE: To prevent temporal depression after the pterional craniotomy, this study was designed to examine the safety and aesthetic efficacy of the brushite calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in the repair and augmentation of bone defects following the pterional craniotomy. METHODS: The brushite CPC was used for the repair of surgically induced cranial defects, with or without augmentation, in 17 cases of pterional approach between March, 2005 and December, 2006. The average follow-up month was 20 with range of 12-36 months. In the first 5 cases, bone defects were repaired with only brushite CPC following the contour of the original bone. In the next 12 cases, bone defects were augmented with the brushite CPC rather than original bone contour. For a stability monitoring of the implanted brushite CPC, post-implantation evaluations including serial X-ray, repeated physical examination for aesthetic efficacy, and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) were taken 1 year after the implantation. RESULTS: The brushite CPC paste provided precise and easy contouring in restoration of the bony defect site. No adverse effects such as infection or inflammation were noticed during the follow-up periods from all patients. 3D-CT was taken 1 year subsequent to implantation showed good preservation of the brushite CPC restoration material. In the cases of the augmentation group, aesthetic outcomes were superior compared to the simple repair group. CONCLUSION: The results of this clinical study indicate that the brushite CPC is a biocompatible alloplastic material, which is useful for prevention of temporal depression after pterional craniotomy. Additional study is required to determine the long-term stability and effectiveness of the brushite calcium phosphate cement for the replacement of bone.