OBJECTIVE: Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the vertebral body is known as a relatively uncommon phenomenon in a vertebral compression fracture (VCF). The outstanding radiologic findings of AVN are intravertebral vacuum phenomenon with or without fluid collection. Several reports revealed that PVP or balloon kyphoplasty might be the effective treatment modalities for AVN. We also experienced excellent results when using PVP for the treatment of AVN of the vertebral body, and intend to describe the treatment's efficacy in this report. METHODS: Thirty-two patients diagnosed with AVN of the vertebral body were treated with PVP. We measured the pre- and post-operative anterior body height and kyphotic angulation. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the relief of back pain. RESULTS: The anterior body height (pre-operative : 1.49 cm, post-operative : 2.22 cm) and kyphotic angulation (pre-operative : 14.47 degrees, post-operative : 6.57 degrees) were significantly restored (p<0.001). VAS was improved from 8.9 to 3.7. Pseudoarthrosis was corrected in all cases, which was confirmed by dynamic radiographs. Fluid collection was found in sixteen cases and was aspirated with serous nature. No organism and tumor cell were noted. CONCLUSION: PVP proved to be an effective procedure for the treatment of AVN of the vertebral body, which corrected dynamic instability and significantly restored the anterior body height and kyphotic angulation.