OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliable factors influencing the surgical outcome of the patients with traumatic acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) and to improve the functional outcome of these patients. METHODS: A total of 256 consecutive patients who underwent surgical intervention for traumatic ASDH between March 1998 and March 2008 were reviewed. We evaluated the influence of perioperative variables on functional recovery and mortality using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Functional recovery was achieved in 42.2% of patients and the overall mortality was 39.8%. Age (OR=4.91, p=0.002), mechanism of injury (OR=3.66, p=0.003), pupillary abnormality (OR=3.73, p=0.003), GCS score on admission (OR=5.64, p=0.000), and intraoperative acute brain swelling (ABS) (OR=3.71, p=0.009) were independent predictors for functional recovery. And preoperative pupillary abnormality (OR=2.60, p=0.023), GCS score (OR=4.66, p=0.000), and intraoperative ABS (OR=4.16, p=0.001) were independent predictors for mortality. Midline shift, thickness and volume of hematoma, type of surgery, and time to surgery showed no independent association with functional recovery, although these variables were correlated with functional recovery in univariate analyses. CONCLUSION: Functional recovery was more likely to be achieved in patients who were under 40 years of age, victims of motor vehicle collision and having preoperative reactive pupils, higher GCS score and the absence of ABS during surgery. These results would be helpful for neurosurgeon to improve outcomes from traumatic acute subdural hematomas.