OBJECTIVE: The lack of anatomical knowledge for the anterior cervical microforaminotomy is liable to injure the neurovascular structures. The surgical anatomy is examined with special attention to the ventral aspect exposed in anterior cervical microforaminotomy. METHODS: In 16 adult formalin fixed cadaveric cervical spine, the author measured the distances from the medical margin of the longus colli to the medical wall of the ipsilateral vertebral artery and the angle for the ipsilateral vertebral artery. The distances from the lateral margin of the posterior longitudinal ligament to the medial margin of the ipsilateral medial wall of the vertebral artery, to the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion was measured too. RESULTS: The distance from the medial margin of the longus colli to the ipsilateral vertebral artery was 13.3~14.7mm and the angle for the ipsilateral vertebral artery was 41~42.5 degrees. The range of distance from the lateral margin of the posterior longitudinal ligament to the ipsilateral vertebral artery was 11.9~16.1mm, to the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion was 11.6~12.9mm. CONCLUSION: These data will aid in reducing neurovascular injury during anterior cervical approaches.