Idiopathic arterial hypertension, termed "essential" or "neurogenic", is a common generalized cardiovascular syndrome comprised of a sequence of pathologic changes and accommodations. Although an extensive literature exists concerning that, the primary etiology has been unclear yet. However, Jannetta and coworkers have reported a possible etiological connection between essential hypertension and intraoperatively observed neurovascular compression of the ventrolateral medulla at the level of the root entry zone of the ninth and tenth cranial nerves on the left, recently. They have also introduced one of new therapeutical concept for essential hypertension by microvascular decompression(MVD) of offending vessels. Based on Jannetta and coworker's hypothesis, the authors have made some operations for the control of hypertension. Seven essential hypertensive patients have been underwent retromastoid craniectomy and MVD in the left ventrolateral medulla between July 1992 and June 1993. Five of them showed multiple episodes of intracerebral hemorrhages, one was an intractable hypertension case and the other one had a left hemifacial spasm with essential hypertension. The most common offending vessel was the posterior inferior cerebellar artery and it had been confirmed during operation. Postoperatively, in three cases, blood pressure was lowered to normal without medications. Of remaining four cases, blood pressure was significantly improved in one and slightly improved in three. There were no major complications in patients with surgery and no poor outcomes. These results indicate that the MVD for essential hypertension is relatively safe procedure and alternative choice as one of the management of intractable essential hypertension, repeated hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages and left cranial nerve hyperfunction disorders combined with essential hypertension.