The treatment of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hematoma is still controversial, but stereotaxic surgery is preferred to conservative treatment recently. We analyzed 78 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hematoma and compared the result of treatment between two groups ; 40 patients with stereotaxic hematoma evacuation, 38 patients with conservative treatment. The results were as following : In thalamic and basal ganglia hematoma, improvement of consciousness level, motor grade and Glasgow coma scale in stereotaxic surgery group was better than that of conservative treatment group and the mortality rate was lower in the stereotaxic surgery group than in the conservative treatment group. Patients with alert or somnolent state preoperatively had better functional recovery in the surgically treated group, but stuporous or comatose patients had no better outcome after surgery. Stereotaxic hematoma evacuation can minimize the brain damage and be performed under the local anesthesia, so it can lower the mortality and morbidity rate of the spontaneous intracerebral hematoma patients.