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J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 1975 Oct;4(2):247-258. Korean. Original Article.
Han DH , Huh CW , Song JU .
Department of Neurosurgery, Catholic Medical College, Seoul, Korea.
Abstract

We have experienced 17 cases of the upper brain stem compression lesions diagnosed by serial vertebral angiography and other ancillary studies from October, 1972 to August, 1975. All the cases were proven by serial vertebral angioraphy using the Seldinger catheter technique through the femoral artery and other studies such as carotid angiography, conray ventriculograpy, brain scan and pneumoencephalography. Angiographical analysis were attempted. The results were as following: 1. The location of lesion is:supratentorial lesions; 8 cases, infratentorial lesions; 5 cases, tentorial lesions; 3 cases, bilateral hippocampal herniation due to otitic hydrocephalus; 1 case. 2. We have tried to classify the upper brain stem compression lesions according to the direction of compression, i.e., (1) forward, (2) medial, (3) backward and (4) downward and analyzed their angiographic findings in detail. 3. Lesions compressed the upper brain stem forward were one case of bilateral occipital meningioma, one case of fourth ventricle tumor, two cases of medulloblastoma and one case of cerebellar hemispheric tumor. Their main angiographic findings were as follows;(1) Separation of quadrigeminal segment of superior cerebellar artery and posterior cerebral artery, (2) Compression of basilar artery against clivus and depression or elevation of bifurcation of basilar artery, (3) Stretching of thalamoperforating artery, (4) Elevation and forward basilar artery, (3) Stretching of thalamoperforating artery, (4) Elevation and forward displacement of posterior mesencephalic vein and posterior displacement of precentral cerebellar vein, (5) Elevation of vein of Rosenthal. 4. Lesions compressed the upper brain stem medially were two cases of parietal ependymoma, one case of temporal meningioma, one case of bilateral hippocampal herniation and three cases of tentorial tumors. Their main angiography findings were as follows; (1) Medial displacement of posterior cerebral artery, superior cerebelar artery, bifurcation of basilar artery, distal portion of vein of Rosenthal, lateral mesencephalic vein and internal cerebral vein in Towne's view, (2) Elevation or depression of posterior mesencephalic vein, (3) Depression of bifurcation of basilar artery, (4) Stretching of thalamoperforating artery, (5) Depression of crural and ambient segment of superior cerebellar artery. 5. Lesions compressed the upper brain stem backward were one case of pituitary tumor and one case of cerebellopontine angle tumor. Their main angiographic findings were as follows; (2) Posterior displacement of distal portion of basilar artery, (2) Posterior displacement of anterior pontomesencephalic vein, (3) Elevation of posterior cerebral artery and superior cerebellar artery, (4) Elevation of vein of Rosenthal and posterior mesencephalic vein, (5) Stretching and elevation of posterior communicating artery. 6. Lesions compressed the upper brain stem downward were one case of thalamic tumor, one case of thalamic hemorrhage, and one case of pinealoma. Their main angiographic findings were as follows; (1) Stretching of posterior cerebral artery and superior cerebellar artery, (2) Displacement and stretching of internal cerebral vein, vein of Rosenthal and posterior mesencephalic vein, (3) Depression of bifurcation of basilar artery, (4) Stretching of thalamoperforating artery, (5) Depression of posterior cerebral artery and superior cerebellar artery, (6) Depression of internal cerebral vein, vein of Rosenthal, posterior mesencephalic vein and anterior pontomesencephalic vein. 7. We have concluded that in order to diagnosis the upper brain stem compression lesions serial vertebral angiography is the most important procedure and at the same time the analysis of the arteriographic and venographic findings in detail is important.

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