Bloating is one of the most common and troublesome problems in a large proportion of patients with gastrointestinal disorders but the mechanism is not completely understood. Several factors, including gas-producing intestinal microbiota, disturbed handling of intestinal gas, visceral hypersensitivity, abnormal viscero-somatic responses, fermentable diet, and psychological factors, have been suggested as mechanisms. For an assessment, thorough medical history-taking and physical examination are the first steps. On the other hand, organic disorders should always be considered first for a differential diagnosis. The therapeutic options available are considered challenging and still limited in clinical practice. The treatment strategy may include diet modification, pharmacologic approach, psychiatric approach, biofeedback, etc. Further studies will be needed to explore the variable mechanism of bloating and develop an efficient treatment.