BACKGROUND/AIMS: To date, the best therapeutic modality for gastric adenoma, especially low-grade adenoma, has not been established. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of argon plasma coagulation (APC) in treating gastric adenoma compared with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). METHODS: We included 210 patients with gastric adenoma, who underwent treatment with either APC (97 patients) or ESD (113 patients). The clinical and pathologic characteristics, mean duration of hospital stay, complications, and recurrence rates between the two groups were compared. RESULTS: The mean adenoma size was 0.9 cm and 1.1 cm in the APC group and ESD group, respectively (p<0.001). The mean duration of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the APC group than in the ESD group (1.6 days vs. 5.8 days, p<0.001). Complications did not occur in the APC group. However, one case of perforation (0.9%) and 6 cases of bleeding (5.3%) occurred in the ESD group. The recurrence rates were 15.3% (15/97 patients) in the APC group and 3.5% (4/113 patients) in the ESD group (p=0.003). The proportion of hospitalization was less in the APC group (43.3%, 42/97) than in the ESD group (100.0%, 113/113) (p<0.001). Medical expense was less in the APC group (377,172 won) than in the ESD group (1,430,610 won) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that APC is a safe treatment method for gastric adenoma without serious complications. However, regular endoscopic follow-up is necessary to detect any residual or recurrent lesions due to the relatively high rate of local recurrence after APC.