Chronic inflammation has been known to be a risk for many kinds of cancers, including pancreatic and biliary tract cancer. Recently, inflammatory process has emerged as a key mediator of cancer development and progression. Many efforts with experimental results have been given to identify the underlying mechanisms that contribute to inflammation-induced tumorigenesis. Diverse inflammatory pathways have been investigated and inhibitors for inflammation-related signaling pathways have been developed for cancer treatment. This review will summarize recent outcomes about this distinctive process in pancreatic and biliary tract cancer. Taking this evidence into consideration, modulation of inflammatory process will provide useful options for pancreatic and biliary tract cancer treatment.