BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oncogenic RAS gene mutations have been frequently observed in many tumor types, and their associations with various cancers were reported. This study was conducted to evaluate the association between H-RAS T81C polymorphism and gastric cancer development. METHODS: H-RAS T81C polymorphism was genotyped in 321 chronic gastritis (ChG) and 151 gastric cancer (GC) patients using GoldenGate(R) Assay kit. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and gender was performed to identify the differences of genotype and allele distributions between the each group. RESULTS: All ChG and GC patients were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. When the frequencies of H-RAS T81C genotype in each group were compared, the homozygous type of major allele TT was more frequent in GC group (62.9%) than ChG group (57.3%), while the frequencies of heterozygous type TC and homozygous type of minor allele CC were higher in ChG group than GC group (39.3% vs. 33.8%, 3.4% vs. 3.3%, respectively). In the results of logistic regression analyses adjusted for age and gender, the odds ratios were 0.845 (0.604-1.182), 0.799 (0.556-1.147), 0.741 (0.493-1.114) and 1.094 (0.366-3.270) for allele, codominant, dominant and recessive models, respectively. However, significant difference was not observed between two groups in any models. CONCLUSIONS: H-RAS T81C polymorphism was not associated with gastric cancer development in a Korean population.