BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study was designed to investigate the role of gastric acid in the extent of H. pylori-induced gastritis. METHODS: Twenty eight mice were innoculated with live H. pylori. They were allocated into four groups. Mice in group I received no treatment, group II mice were treated with sham injection, group III received 125microgram/kg body weight of pentagastrin, while group IV received 250microgram/kg body weight of pentagastrin subcutaneously three times a week. After 7 months, the mucosal pH, H. pylori density, neutrophils and monocytes infiltration, and the degree of atrophy were assessed in the stomach. RESULTS: In the gastric body, the densities of H. pylori were not different among groups. The degree of neutrophil infiltration was significantly lower in group IV compared to other groups (p<0.05). The degree of monocyte infiltration was also significantly lower in group IV than group III (p<0.05). In the gastric antrum, there was no significant difference of the H. pylori density, neutrophil and monocyte infiltration, and degree of atrophy among the groups. The mice with the gastric mucosal pH lower than mean of 3.2 had significant lower level of H. pylori density (1.4 vs. 2.4, p=0.04), and infiltration of neutrophils (0.9 vs. 2.3, p=0.018), and monocytes (1.2 vs. 1.8; p=0.011) than the those with mucosal pH above 3.2 in the body of stomach. CONCLUSIONS: Gastric acid plays a role in suppressing the proximal propagation of H. pylori-induced gastritis to the body of stomach.