BACKGROUND/AIMS: Antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a significant clinical problem because it reduces the efficacy of eradication therapy. The aims of this study were to assess the changing patterns of antibiotic resistance of H. pylori in patients with peptic ulcer diseases and to evaluate the eradication rate in antibiotic resistant H. pylori strains. METHODS: One hundred forty four H. pylori isolates obtained from 466 patients with peptic ulcer disease between June 2001 and December 2005 were examined for antimicrobial resistance. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of metronidazole was determined by modified broth microdilution method (mBMD) and E test. MICs of clarithromycin and amoxicillin were determined by mBMD, E test, and disc diffusion test. The breakpoints for metronidazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin resistance were defined as >8microgram/mL, >1microgram/mL, and > or =1microgram/mL, respectively. RESULTS: Resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin was detected in 34.7% and 16.7% of H. pylori isolates, respectively. During the recent 5-year study period, amoxicillin-resistant rate of H. pylori was 11.8%, and multi-drug resistance rate of H. pylori was 16.7%. The eradication rate of clarithromycin containing triple therapies was low (7.8%) in clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori strains. CONCLUSIONS: The proportions of clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori strains have increased significantly over the last 5-years. There is an increasing tendency for the emergence of strains with multi-drug resistance. The increase in clarithromycin-resistant strains results in a decrease in eradication rate for H. pylori. In areas with high clarithromycin resistance, new alternative first-line treatment combination should be considered.