BACKGROUND/AIMS: Rabeprazole sodium is a potent proton pump inhibitor. We assessed the efficacy, safety and compliance of one-week triple therapy including rabeprazole with amoxicillin and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). METHODS: Eighty-eight H. pylori-positive patients with peptic ulcer disease were received rabeprazole 10 mg bid, amoxicillin 1,000 mg bid and clarithromycin 500 mg bid for a week. Endoscopic examination with five biopsies (two specimens from the antrum, two from the gastric body, and one from the gastric angle) was performed. The status of H. pylori infection was assessed by histology (immunohistochemistry) of the biopsy specimens, 13C urea breath test, and CLO test at the beginning and 13C urea breath test 4 weeks after the completion of treatment. RESULTS: H. pylori eradication rates were 74.71% by intention-to-treat analysis and 87.84% by per-protocol analysis. The percentage of side effects was 12.5% and these side effects were not serious. CONCLUSIONS: One-week rabeprzole based triple therapy is an effective and safe regimen for H. pylori eradication in patients with peptic ulcer.