The prevalence of gastric stump cancer ranges from 0.8% to 8.9% in other countries, but there has been a few reports in Korea. Specific factors responsible for the pathogenesis of gastric stump cancer are still unclear. Several potential mechanisms, such as enterogastric reflux and Helicobacter pylori infection, have been formulated to explain this phenomenon. Althoungh there have been many studies about the relationship between gastric cancer and H. pylori infection, the role of H. pylori infection on gastric stump cancer is still controversial. To consider the clinical relevance of H. pylori infection in resected stomach, we report two cases of gastric stump cancer with or without H. pylori infection with a review of the literatures. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the relationship between gastric stump cancer and H. pylori infection.