BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In recent years, the pattern of tuberculosis has been changed, demonstrating that extrapulrnonary tuberculosis appears to be increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features to predict the factors related to the development of complications in patients with intestinal tuberculosis. METHODS: A total of 95 patients with intestinal tub=rculosis treated at the Asan Medical Center from June, 1989 to November, 1995 were included. The clinical characteristics of the patients cured by antituberculous medication alone were compared with those of patients who underwent operation due to complications developed during antituberculous medication. RESULTS: Eighty one patients were treated with antituberculous drugs, among whom 66 patients (81%) were cured by antituberculous drugs alone. The reaining 15 patients (19%) received operations for the complications that developed during antituberculous medication. The median period from the beginning of antituberculous medication to the development of complications was 3 months. There was no significant difference in clinical features between the two groups except the location of the disease. Small bowel was evaluated radiologically in only 30 patients, of whom 15 patients revealed small bowel lesions. Six out of 15 patients (40%) with small bowel lesions had the perforation of bowel, while none of 15 patients (0%) without small bowel lesions experienced it (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal tuberculosis patients having small bowel lesions showed a tendency to develop bowel perforation more frequently than in those without small bowel involvement. However, to draw a definite conclusion whether small bowel involvement is the true risk factor for perforation, a prospective study should be performed.