PURPOSE: Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is one of the most common problems in childhood. NE has a multifactorial etiology and is influenced by sleep and arousal mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate sleep problems and patterns in children with NE compared with normal healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-eight children with NE and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. To evaluate sleep habits and disturbances, parents and children filled out a questionnaire that included items about sleep patterns and sleep-related behaviors prior to treatment for NE. Demographic factors and other data were compared for the two groups based on the responses to the sleep questionnaire. RESULTS: Night awakening, sleepwalking, and periodic limb movements were more prevalent in children with NE, but symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing were not increased in this group. There were statistically significant differences in periodic limb movements and daytime sleepiness between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Children with NE seemed to have more sleep problems such as night awakening, sleepwalking, and periodic limb movements. In addition, a higher level of daytime sleepiness and hyperactivity in patients with NE suggested a relationship between NE and sleep disorders.