PURPOSE: Hysterectomy without lymph node dissection was considered an inadequate treatment method for invasive uterine cervix cancer. Usually the procedure was performed inadvertently on patients who were thought to have benign or premalignant conditions preoperatively. We analysed radiotherapy results of such patients to evaluate survival rates, failure patterns and prognostic factors according to various conditions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Sixty one patients undergoing hysterectomy in the presence of invasive cervical carcinoma were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative diagnosis were carcioma in situ (38 cases), severe dysplasia(2), myoma(6), uterine bleeding (4), uterine prolapse (2), and early invasive cervix cancer (10) (One patient had myoma and carcinoma in situ coincidently). Patients received postoperative megavoltage radiotherapy form August 1985 to December 1993, and minimum follow-up period was 24 months. Eight patients reveived ICR only, 6 patients ICR and external radiation, and 47 patients received external radiation therapy only. RESULTS: Overall 5-year survival rate and relapse-free survival rate were 83.8%, 86.9% respectively. For patients with retrospective stage IA, IB, IIB (gross residual after surgery), and vaginal cuff recurrence were 90.9%, 88.8%, 38.4%, and 100% respectively. There were 8 cases of treatment failure, most of them (5/8) were in patients with gross residual disease, other patients were full thickness involvement of cervix wall (2/8) except one. Patients with early vaginal cuff recurrence and microinvasive cervical cncer (stage IA) had no treatment related failure. Prognostic factors affecting survival by univariate analysis were status of residual disease, tumor histology and retrospective stage. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant radiotherapy appeared to be effective treatment method for patients with presumed stage IA, IB and early local recurrent disease after inadvertent hysterectomy. Survivals for patients with gross disease remained after inappropriate hysterectomy was poor. So, early cancer detection and proper management with precise pretreatment staging is necessary to avoid inadherent hysterectomy especially in the cases of gross residual disease.